What Is the Scientific Evidence for Balneotherapy?
Although various forms of balneotherapy have undergone some scientific study, none of this evidence is reliable. There are many causes of the inadequacies in the research record, but one is intrinsic and probably not correctable. This is the problem of "blinding."
For the results of a study to be reliable, participants and researchers must be kept in the dark ("blind") regarding who received the treatment under study (the "active group") and who received a placebo treatment (the "control group"). If practitioners and/or researchers know who is in which group, numerous confounding factors take over and produce misleading results. These factors include observer bias, reporting bias, and the placebo effect. The many ways in which these confounders reliably skew the results of unblinded studies are discussed in detail in
Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?
To briefly summarize this complex issue: unblinded studies usually mean little to nothing.
Unfortunately, it's difficult to keep study participants in the dark regarding whether they've taken a hot bath! Some researchers have used ordinary tap water as a comparison against special mineral water. Unfortunately, if, (as was the case in some studies) the active treatment smelled of sulfur, or (as in other studies) it was so dense with minerals that it made the skin tingle and the body float high in the water, participants would have no doubt guessed which group they were in. This would effectively destroy blinding, and, as noted above, fundamentally compromise the study results.
Given these caveats, there is
evidence that balneotherapy of various kinds might be helpful for:
Balneotherapy is also said to be helpful for
and numerous other conditions, but for these conditions it lacks even unreliable supporting evidence.
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Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd
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